What is FIDIC?

FIDIC is an international agency that formulates conditions of contract recommended for construction works where tenders are invited on an international basis. FIDIC conditions of contract are also widely used in domestic projects with minor modifications. FIDIC is the abbreviation of Fédération Internationale Des Ingénieurs-Conseils, meaning International Federation of Consulting Engineers in French. Different forms of FIDIC conditions of contract are commonly known as the Red Book, Silver Book, Yellow Book, Pink Book, Green Book, Blue Book, White Book, Gold Book etc.

The 1999 Suite of FIDIC Standard Conditions of Contract

Conditions of Contract for Construction – The New Red Book
Conditions of Contract for Plant and Design Build – The New Yellow Book
Conditions of Contract for EPC Turnkey Projects – The Silver Book
Short Form of Contract – The Green Book
The FIDIC Contracts Guide (2000)

Traditional FIDIC Conditions of Contract

Conditions of Contract for Works of Civil Engineering Construction – Red Book Fourth Edition (1987)
Conditions of Contract for Electrical and Mechanical Works including Erection on Site -Yellow Book Third Edition (1987)
Conditions of Contract for Design-Build and Turnkey – Orange Book First Edition (1995)

For more information visit

https://www.unep.fr/energy/activities/eca/pdf/ws3/philipjenkinson_fidic.pdf
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FIDIC

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List of popular standards in the United States

1 AA-ASM Aluminum Association-Aluminum Sheet Metal Work in Building Construction
2 AAI Aluminum Association, Inc
3 AAI-RMA Agriculture Ammonia Institute-Rubber Manufacturers Association
4 AAMA American Architectural Manufacturers Association
5 AASHTO American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials
6 AATCC American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists
7 ABS American Bureau of Shipping
8 ABYC American Boat and Yacht Council
9 ACCA Air Conditioning Contractors of America
10 ACGIH Association Advancing Occupational and Environmental Health
11 ACI American Concrete Institute
12 AGA American Gas Association
13 AHPA American Herbal Products Association
14 AIA Aerospace Industries Association of America
15 AISC American Institute of Steel Construction
16 AISE Association of Iron and Steel Engineers
17 AISI American Iron and Steel Institute
18 AITC American Institute of Timber Construction
19 AMCA Air Movement and Control Association
20 ANSI American National Standards Institute
21 AOAC Association of Official Analytical Chemists
22 APA American Psychological Association
23 API American Petroleum Institute
24 ARI Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute
25 ASAE American Society of Agricultural Engineers
26 ASCE American Society of Civil Engineers
27 ASHRAE American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers
28 ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers
29 ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers
30 ASNT American Society for Nondestructive Testing
31 ASQC American Society for Quality Control
32 ASSE American Society of Safety Engineers
33 ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials
34 ATSC Advanced Television Systems Committee
35 AWPA American Wood Preservers Assocation
36 AWPA American Wood Protection Association
37 AWS American Welding Society
38 AWWA American Water Works Society
39 BOCA Building Officials and Code Administrators
42 CABO Council of American Building Officials
43 CGA Compressed Gas Association
44 CI Cordage Institute
45 CISPI Cast Iron Soil Pipe Institute
46 CMAA Crane Manufacturers Association of America
47 CSA Standards Council of Canada
48 EIA Energy Information Administration
49 EJMA Expansion Joint Manufacturers Association Inc.
50 EMA Electrical Manufacturers Association
51 FCI Fluid Controls Institute Inc.
52 FMER Factory Mutual Engineering and Research
53 GPA Gas Processors Association
54 GRI Gas Research Institute
55 GTI Gas Technology Institute
56 HPVA Hardwood Plywood and Veneer Association
57 IADC International Association of Drilling Contractors
58 IAPMO International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials
59 ICC International Code Council
60 ICS International Chamber of Shipping
61 IEC International Electrotechnical Commission
62 IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
63 IES Illuminating Engineering Society
64 IHO International Hydrographic Organization
65 IIT Illinois Institute of Technology
66 IME Institute of Makers of Explosives
67 IMO International Maritime Organization
68 ISA International Society for Measurement and Control
69 ISO International Organization for Standardization
70 ISO International Organization for Standardization
71 ITU International Telecommunication Union 
72 LR Lloyd’s Register of Shipping
73 MIL SPEC United States Military
74 MSS Manufacturers Standardization Societ
75 NAESBWEQ North American Energy Standards Board Wholesale Electric Quadrant
76 NEMA National Electrical Manufacturers Association
77 NFoPA National Forest Products Association
78 NFPA National Fire Protection Association
79 NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology
80 NWWDA National Wood Window and Door Association
81 OCIMF Oil Companies International Marine Forum
82 OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration
83 RTCM Radio Technical Commission for Maritime Services
84 SAE Society of Automotive Engineers
85 SAE Society of Automotive Engineers
86 SBCC Southern Building Code Congress
87 SCTE Society of Cable Telecommunications Engineers
88 SEI Structural Engineering Institute
89 TPI Truss Plate Institute
90 UL Underwriters Laboratories
91 USPC The United States Pharmacopoeia
92 WQA Water Quality Association
93 WSTDA Web Sling and Tiedown Association

What are the differences between ASTM, AASHTO, ACI and ANSI?

What is TOR Steel? What is the difference between TOR Steel and TMT Steel?

TOR is a brand name – Toristeg Steel Corporation of Luxembourg. Their name (TOR) became synonymous with Cold Twisted Deformed (CTD) steel bars due to popularity. TOR is also  used as a synonym for reinforcement bars in general.

TOR and TMT are both high strength reinforcement steel bars.

History : Round plain steel bars dominated the construction industry till seventies. Thereafter CTD (or TOR Steel) dominated the industry  till nineties. Nowadays TMT or hot treated bars are the most popular due to its advantages over CTD (TOR) such as high strength and corrosion resistance.

Some of the popular grades of high Strength steel bars (either hot or cold rolled) are listed in the following table.

American Standard (ASTM A 615) Euro Standard (DIN 488) British Standard (BS 4449: 1997) Indian Standard (IS: 1786)
Grade 75 (520) BST 500 S GR 460 A Grade Fe – 500
Grade 80 (550) BST 500 M GR 460 B Grade Fe – 550

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What is Provisional Sum in Construction Contracts?

Generally provisional sum is an amount allocated for a specialized work by a specialized firm, for which the details are not available at the time of tender. The provisional sum amount will be a best guess at the time of tender by the employer or contractor depending upon the type of provisional sum. Hence claim made by the contractor need not necessarily be the exact amount mentioned in the contract.

Definition of Provisional Sum by FIDIC Conditions of Contract

“Provisional Sum” means a sum (if any) which is specified in the Contract as a provisional sum, for the execution of any part of the Works or for the supply of Plant, Materials or services under Sub-Clauses 13.5(Provisional Sums).

Examples of provisional sums

Provisional sum need not be always allocated specifically for a single task. Sometimes part of contract itself may be made a provisional sum. There can be one or more than one provisional sum item in a contract. To elaborate, let us take the example of site clearance. There may be so many unpredictable items in site clearance. Consider an infrastructure project involving flyover, roads etc. wherein the regular items of clearance include asphalt road, paving blocks, kerb, signal poles, crash barriers, guard rails, sign boards, storm water drainage pipe lines, sewerage pipe lines, manholes, catch pits, gullies, trees, bushes, shrubs, buildings, fencing, compound walls, sculptures and monuments, concrete structures etc. In addition there will be items specific to the site as well. Many items will be measurable at the time of tender but some of the turn out to be uncertain. For example, quantum of work involved in removal of a site specific item like sculpture or monument may become difficult to ascertain. One way to overcome this difficulty is to allocate these as a separate provisional sum item in the BOQ.

What are different types of provisional sums?

According to SMM7, Standard Method of Measurement seventh edition, provisional sums are divided into two categories; defined and undefined. In defined type, contractor is supposed to make due allowance in his quote for such item and it is to be incorporated in the project plan. In undefined type, contractor need not make allowance in the quote nor this item need to be incorporated in the project plan.
Detailed information of defined and undefined type of provisional sums are available here.

Is it binding for the contractor to execute the provisional sum items within time mentioned in project programme?

Though FIDIC describe in detail about valuation of provisional sums, it do not clearly mention the relationship with project programme. Generally provisional sums are not a universally accepted method since it is not advisable to include an item in the contract whose scope is not clearly defined.

How the claim is made for provisional sums?

The method of claim depends upon the arrangement made at the time of execution based on the detailed information. Usually the procedure is similar to a variation claim. For example the contractor floats enquiries and collects quotations. After evaluation, the finalized quotation is forwarded to client for approval with the details of agency proposed to do the work. The employer on his discretion may decide whether to proceed with the contractor’s proposal or not. In some cases the work will be directly allotted to specialized agency if so desired by the employer.

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What is Prime Cost Sum in Construction Contracts?

Prime cost generally is an allowance for articles to be provided by the contractor, of which price cannot be fixed at the time of tender. It refers only to the supply of materials and not to the carrying out of works. A specific amount will be earmarked in the BOQ for execution of such items. Examples are fixtures and finishing works like ceramic tiles, sanitary fittings, water supply fittings etc. that can be decided only at the time of execution. Contractor is not entitled for any profit on prime cost items, but sometimes the cost of carriage will be provided if specified in contract. The FIDIC Conditions of Contract do not mention about prime cost.

Definition of Prime cost by ICE (Institution of Civil Engineers, Great Britain)

“Prime Cost (PC) Item” means an item in the Contract which contains (either wholly or in part) a sum referred to as Prime Cost (PC) which will be used for the execution of work or the supply of goods materials or services for the Works.

How to claim Prime Cost Sum?

Contractor floats enquiries and get quotations; finalized quotation is forwarded to client for approval, along with specifications of proposed materials. After getting approval, contractor proceeds with procurement and installation. The price paid to the contractor will be the amount mentioned in the purchase invoice.

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Are contractors entitled for variations in lump sum contracts?

Yes. Lump sum contract means the contractor has to execute the works for a specified amount fixed in the contract. In a lump sum contract, the contractor is bound to execute works for the completion of the project as detailed in the contract documents; in some cases a bill of quantities will also be included. In either case if a specific work is not detailed in the contract or if alterations are required, then it can be treated as a variation.

Examples of variation in lump sum contracts

An example of variation in lump sum contract is removal of a building or structure which is not described anywhere in drawings or contract documents. Another example is alteration to the details mentioned such as replacing painting works with tiling. A variation order is required to be obtained from the owner/ Engineer before executing the works.

Sometimes a provisional sum will be incorporated in the contract for works which cannot be detailed or enough information are not available at the time of tender. Please visit our pages on provisional sums, contingency allowance, day works etc. for more information.

Variation provisions are detailed in Clause 51.1 of FIDIC Red Book1987 and Clause 13.1 of 1999 edition.

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Earthwork Volume Using Simpson’s Rule

Step by step procedure to find out volume of earthwork using Simpson’s Rule

This article is about using Simpson’s rule to find out the quantity of earthwork using contour maps. The procedure is explained with the help of an example. In the example given below the map is divided in to 6 horizontal and 6 vertical grids each of 5m interval. The reduced levels are given at the intersections.

Suppose the final level for filling is 24.1m. Then the required depth of filling at each point is as given in the table below.

The area on the side of each grid can be found out as follows

Each side can be considered as a trapezoid. Hence the area of each side

eg: (0.98+0.97)/2 x 5 = 4.875

(0.80+0.80)/2 x 5 = 4.000

Now the volume according to Simpson’s rule is as follows

eg: (4.875+3.375)=8.25

4 x (4+3.75+3.925)=46.7

2 x (3.575+3.875)=14.9

Total = 69.85

Total earth filling volume = 341.425 x (d/3)

                                                           =341.425 x (5/3) = 569.042 M3

Note: We express thanks to https://www.e-quantities.com/volumes.htm for bringing up an error in this page to our notice which now has been rectified. You may download the excel file detailing  volume calculation using Trapizoidal Rule here.

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What is Day Work in Construction Contracts?

Dictionary meaning of Day work is ‘work done that is paid on a daily basis’. In construction contracts this term is applied under different contexts.

1. For variations in a lump sum contract, wherein work will be evaluated in accordance with the Day Work Schedule included in the Contract. Day work rates for material, labor, plant and contractor profits will be mentioned in the contract. In such cases the Contractor should consider supervision charges in his bid that will not be paid separately. Clause 13.6 of FIDIC Red Book can be referred to for claims wherein a day work schedule is included in the contract.

2. For variation purpose in an item rate contract; when item rates are not available within bill of quantities for extra items to be executed, method of day works can be adopted as an option.

How is day work measured in a lump sum contract?

As mentioned in the previous paragraph rates will be included in the contract for material, labor, plant and contractor profits. During execution of the works contractor should submit quotations for Engineer’s approval. Works can be executed after getting approval in writing from the Engineer. After completion of the works the contractor should submit to the Engineer along with IPC (interim payment certificate) all the invoices, vouchers and receipts of goods, equipments and plant involved in the work.

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What is Contingency Allowance in Construction Contracts?

Contingency allowance is provided in construction contracts to allow for miscellaneous unforeseen costs which cannot be classified under any other head, but is necessary for successful completion of the project. In construction contracts usually 3 to 5 percent of contract value is provided as contingency allowance. An example of such unforeseen cost is price escalation. If there is a saving in the contingency allowance, then this amount can be used for execution of extra items of work. That means when variation claims are raised, it is common that the employer will cancel the contingency allowance against variation claims, and pay the contractor.

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What is Clause 14 programme?

Project programme is also known as Clause 14 programme, in cases where the conditions of contract are based on FIDIC.

Conditions regarding construction project programme are detailed in Clause 14 of FIDIC Red Book 1987 edition, whereas it is incorporated under Clause 8 of FIDIC Red Book 1999 edition. FIDIC Red Book 1987 edition is still followed worldwide hence very often project programme is known by the name Cl.14 programme.

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